BERT

The BERT model was proposed in BERT: Pre-training of Deep Bidirectional Transformers for Language Understanding by Jacob Devlin, Ming-Wei Chang, Kenton Lee and Kristina Toutanova. It is a bidirectional transformer pre-trained using a combination of masked language modeling objective and next sentence prediction.

Note

This class is nearly identical to the PyTorch implementation of BERT in Huggingface Transformers. For more information, visit the corresponding section in their documentation.

BertConfig

class transformers.BertConfig(vocab_size=30522, hidden_size=768, num_hidden_layers=12, num_attention_heads=12, intermediate_size=3072, hidden_act='gelu', hidden_dropout_prob=0.1, attention_probs_dropout_prob=0.1, max_position_embeddings=512, type_vocab_size=2, initializer_range=0.02, layer_norm_eps=1e-12, pad_token_id=0, gradient_checkpointing=False, **kwargs)

This is the configuration class to store the configuration of a BertModel or a TFBertModel. It is used to instantiate a BERT model according to the specified arguments, defining the model architecture. Instantiating a configuration with the defaults will yield a similar configuration to that of the BERT bert-base-uncased architecture.

Configuration objects inherit from PretrainedConfig and can be used to control the model outputs. Read the documentation from PretrainedConfig for more information.

Parameters
  • vocab_size (int, optional, defaults to 30522) – Vocabulary size of the BERT model. Defines the number of different tokens that can be represented by the inputs_ids passed when calling BertModel or TFBertModel.

  • hidden_size (int, optional, defaults to 768) – Dimensionality of the encoder layers and the pooler layer.

  • num_hidden_layers (int, optional, defaults to 12) – Number of hidden layers in the Transformer encoder.

  • num_attention_heads (int, optional, defaults to 12) – Number of attention heads for each attention layer in the Transformer encoder.

  • intermediate_size (int, optional, defaults to 3072) – Dimensionality of the “intermediate” (often named feed-forward) layer in the Transformer encoder.

  • hidden_act (str or Callable, optional, defaults to "gelu") – The non-linear activation function (function or string) in the encoder and pooler. If string, "gelu", "relu", "silu" and "gelu_new" are supported.

  • hidden_dropout_prob (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) – The dropout probability for all fully connected layers in the embeddings, encoder, and pooler.

  • attention_probs_dropout_prob (float, optional, defaults to 0.1) – The dropout ratio for the attention probabilities.

  • max_position_embeddings (int, optional, defaults to 512) – The maximum sequence length that this model might ever be used with. Typically set this to something large just in case (e.g., 512 or 1024 or 2048).

  • type_vocab_size (int, optional, defaults to 2) – The vocabulary size of the token_type_ids passed when calling BertModel or TFBertModel.

  • initializer_range (float, optional, defaults to 0.02) – The standard deviation of the truncated_normal_initializer for initializing all weight matrices.

  • layer_norm_eps (float, optional, defaults to 1e-12) – The epsilon used by the layer normalization layers.

  • gradient_checkpointing (bool, optional, defaults to False) – If True, use gradient checkpointing to save memory at the expense of slower backward pass.

Examples:

>>> from transformers import BertModel, BertConfig

>>> # Initializing a BERT bert-base-uncased style configuration
>>> configuration = BertConfig()

>>> # Initializing a model from the bert-base-uncased style configuration
>>> model = BertModel(configuration)

>>> # Accessing the model configuration
>>> configuration = model.config

BertTokenizer

class transformers.BertTokenizer(vocab_file, do_lower_case=True, do_basic_tokenize=True, never_split=None, unk_token='[UNK]', sep_token='[SEP]', pad_token='[PAD]', cls_token='[CLS]', mask_token='[MASK]', tokenize_chinese_chars=True, strip_accents=None, **kwargs)

Construct a BERT tokenizer. Based on WordPiece.

This tokenizer inherits from PreTrainedTokenizer which contains most of the main methods. Users should refer to this superclass for more information regarding those methods.

Parameters
  • vocab_file (str) – File containing the vocabulary.

  • do_lower_case (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Whether or not to lowercase the input when tokenizing.

  • do_basic_tokenize (bool, optional, defaults to True) – Whether or not to do basic tokenization before WordPiece.

  • never_split (Iterable, optional) – Collection of tokens which will never be split during tokenization. Only has an effect when do_basic_tokenize=True

  • unk_token (str, optional, defaults to "[UNK]") – The unknown token. A token that is not in the vocabulary cannot be converted to an ID and is set to be this token instead.

  • sep_token (str, optional, defaults to "[SEP]") – The separator token, which is used when building a sequence from multiple sequences, e.g. two sequences for sequence classification or for a text and a question for question answering. It is also used as the last token of a sequence built with special tokens.

  • pad_token (str, optional, defaults to "[PAD]") – The token used for padding, for example when batching sequences of different lengths.

  • cls_token (str, optional, defaults to "[CLS]") – The classifier token which is used when doing sequence classification (classification of the whole sequence instead of per-token classification). It is the first token of the sequence when built with special tokens.

  • mask_token (str, optional, defaults to "[MASK]") – The token used for masking values. This is the token used when training this model with masked language modeling. This is the token which the model will try to predict.

  • tokenize_chinese_chars (bool, optional, defaults to True) –

    Whether or not to tokenize Chinese characters.

    This should likely be deactivated for Japanese (see this issue).

  • strip_accents – (bool, optional): Whether or not to strip all accents. If this option is not specified, then it will be determined by the value for lowercase (as in the original BERT).

build_inputs_with_special_tokens(token_ids_0: List[int], token_ids_1: Optional[List[int]] = None) → List[int]

Build model inputs from a sequence or a pair of sequence for sequence classification tasks by concatenating and adding special tokens. A BERT sequence has the following format:

  • single sequence: [CLS] X [SEP]

  • pair of sequences: [CLS] A [SEP] B [SEP]

Parameters
  • token_ids_0 (List[int]) – List of IDs to which the special tokens will be added.

  • token_ids_1 (List[int], optional) – Optional second list of IDs for sequence pairs.

Returns

List of input IDs with the appropriate special tokens.

Return type

List[int]

create_token_type_ids_from_sequences(token_ids_0: List[int], token_ids_1: Optional[List[int]] = None) → List[int]

Create a mask from the two sequences passed to be used in a sequence-pair classification task. A BERT sequence pair mask has the following format:

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
| first sequence    | second sequence |

If token_ids_1 is None, this method only returns the first portion of the mask (0s).

Parameters
  • token_ids_0 (List[int]) – List of IDs.

  • token_ids_1 (List[int], optional) – Optional second list of IDs for sequence pairs.

Returns

List of token type IDs according to the given sequence(s).

Return type

List[int]

get_special_tokens_mask(token_ids_0: List[int], token_ids_1: Optional[List[int]] = None, already_has_special_tokens: bool = False) → List[int]

Retrieve sequence ids from a token list that has no special tokens added. This method is called when adding special tokens using the tokenizer prepare_for_model method.

Parameters
  • token_ids_0 (List[int]) – List of IDs.

  • token_ids_1 (List[int], optional) – Optional second list of IDs for sequence pairs.

  • already_has_special_tokens (bool, optional, defaults to False) – Whether or not the token list is already formatted with special tokens for the model.

Returns

A list of integers in the range [0, 1]: 1 for a special token, 0 for a sequence token.

Return type

List[int]

save_vocabulary(save_directory: str, filename_prefix: Optional[str] = None) → Tuple[str]

Save only the vocabulary of the tokenizer (vocabulary + added tokens).

This method won’t save the configuration and special token mappings of the tokenizer. Use _save_pretrained() to save the whole state of the tokenizer.

Parameters
  • save_directory (str) – The directory in which to save the vocabulary.

  • filename_prefix (str, optional) – An optional prefix to add to the named of the saved files.

Returns

Paths to the files saved.

Return type

Tuple(str)

BertModel

class transformers.BertModel(config, add_pooling_layer=True)

The bare Bert Model transformer outputting raw hidden-states without any specific head on top.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

The model can behave as an encoder (with only self-attention) as well as a decoder, in which case a layer of cross-attention is added between the self-attention layers, following the architecture described in Attention is all you need by Ashish Vaswani, Noam Shazeer, Niki Parmar, Jakob Uszkoreit, Llion Jones, Aidan N. Gomez, Lukasz Kaiser and Illia Polosukhin.

To behave as an decoder the model needs to be initialized with the is_decoder argument of the configuration set to True. To be used in a Seq2Seq model, the model needs to initialized with both is_decoder argument and add_cross_attention set to True; an encoder_hidden_states is then expected as an input to the forward pass.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, encoder_hidden_states=None, encoder_attention_mask=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, adapter_names=None, return_dict=None)

The BertModel forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using BertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • encoder_hidden_states (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the encoder. Used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder.

  • encoder_attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on the padding token indices of the encoder input. This mask is used in the cross-attention if the model is configured as a decoder. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

Returns

A BaseModelOutputWithPoolingAndCrossAttentions (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (BertConfig) and inputs.

  • last_hidden_state (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size)) – Sequence of hidden-states at the output of the last layer of the model.

  • pooler_output (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, hidden_size)) – Last layer hidden-state of the first token of the sequence (classification token) further processed by a Linear layer and a Tanh activation function. The Linear layer weights are trained from the next sentence prediction (classification) objective during pretraining.

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

  • cross_attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True and config.add_cross_attention=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights of the decoder’s cross-attention layer, after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the cross-attention heads.

Return type

BaseModelOutputWithPoolingAndCrossAttentions or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertTokenizer, BertModel
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased')
>>> model = BertModel.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased', return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> last_hidden_states = outputs.last_hidden_state
get_input_embeddings()

Returns the model’s input embeddings.

Returns

A torch module mapping vocabulary to hidden states.

Return type

nn.Module

set_input_embeddings(value)

Set model’s input embeddings.

Parameters

value (nn.Module) – A module mapping vocabulary to hidden states.

BertModelWithHeads

class transformers.BertModelWithHeads(config)

Bert Model transformer with the option to add multiple flexible heads on top.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, adapter_names=None, head=None, return_dict=None, **kwargs)

The BertModelWithHeads forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using BertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

BertForPreTraining

class transformers.BertForPreTraining(config)

Bert Model with two heads on top as done during the pre-training: a masked language modeling head and a next sentence prediction (classification) head.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, labels=None, next_sentence_label=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, adapter_names=None, return_dict=None, **kwargs)

The BertForPreTraining forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using BertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) – Labels for computing the masked language modeling loss. Indices should be in [-100, 0, ..., config.vocab_size] (see input_ids docstring) Tokens with indices set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for the tokens with labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size]

  • next_sentence_label (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) –

    Labels for computing the next sequence prediction (classification) loss. Input should be a sequence pair (see input_ids docstring) Indices should be in [0, 1]:

    • 0 indicates sequence B is a continuation of sequence A,

    • 1 indicates sequence B is a random sequence.

  • kwargs (Dict[str, any], optional, defaults to {}) – Used to hide legacy arguments that have been deprecated.

Returns

A BertForPreTrainingOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (BertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (optional, returned when labels is provided, torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,)) – Total loss as the sum of the masked language modeling loss and the next sequence prediction (classification) loss.

  • prediction_logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) – Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

  • seq_relationship_logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, 2)) – Prediction scores of the next sequence prediction (classification) head (scores of True/False continuation before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertTokenizer, BertForPreTraining
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased')
>>> model = BertForPreTraining.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased', return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> outputs = model(**inputs)

>>> prediction_logits = outputs.prediction_logits
>>> seq_relationship_logits = outputs.seq_relationship_logits

Return type

BertForPreTrainingOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

get_output_embeddings()

Returns the model’s output embeddings.

Returns

A torch module mapping hidden states to vocabulary.

Return type

nn.Module

BertForMaskedLM

class transformers.BertForMaskedLM(config)

Bert Model with a language modeling head on top.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, encoder_hidden_states=None, encoder_attention_mask=None, labels=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, adapter_names=None, return_dict=None, **kwargs)

The BertForMaskedLM forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using BertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) – Labels for computing the masked language modeling loss. Indices should be in [-100, 0, ..., config.vocab_size] (see input_ids docstring) Tokens with indices set to -100 are ignored (masked), the loss is only computed for the tokens with labels in [0, ..., config.vocab_size]

  • kwargs (Dict[str, any], optional, defaults to {}) – Used to hide legacy arguments that have been deprecated.

Returns

A MaskedLMOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (BertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Masked language modeling (MLM) loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.vocab_size)) – Prediction scores of the language modeling head (scores for each vocabulary token before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

MaskedLMOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertTokenizer, BertForMaskedLM
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased')
>>> model = BertForMaskedLM.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased', return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("The capital of France is [MASK].", return_tensors="pt")
>>> labels = tokenizer("The capital of France is Paris.", return_tensors="pt")["input_ids"]

>>> outputs = model(**inputs, labels=labels)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits
get_output_embeddings()

Returns the model’s output embeddings.

Returns

A torch module mapping hidden states to vocabulary.

Return type

nn.Module

prepare_inputs_for_generation(input_ids, attention_mask=None, **model_kwargs)

Implement in subclasses of PreTrainedModel for custom behavior to prepare inputs in the generate method.

BertForNextSentencePrediction

class transformers.BertForNextSentencePrediction(config)

Bert Model with a next sentence prediction (classification) head on top.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, labels=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, adapter_names=None, return_dict=None, **kwargs)

The BertForNextSentencePrediction forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using BertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) –

    Labels for computing the next sequence prediction (classification) loss. Input should be a sequence pair (see input_ids docstring). Indices should be in [0, 1]:

    • 0 indicates sequence B is a continuation of sequence A,

    • 1 indicates sequence B is a random sequence.

Returns

A NextSentencePredictorOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (BertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when next_sentence_label is provided) – Next sequence prediction (classification) loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, 2)) – Prediction scores of the next sequence prediction (classification) head (scores of True/False continuation before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertTokenizer, BertForNextSentencePrediction
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased')
>>> model = BertForNextSentencePrediction.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased', return_dict=True)

>>> prompt = "In Italy, pizza served in formal settings, such as at a restaurant, is presented unsliced."
>>> next_sentence = "The sky is blue due to the shorter wavelength of blue light."
>>> encoding = tokenizer(prompt, next_sentence, return_tensors='pt')

>>> outputs = model(**encoding, labels=torch.LongTensor([1]))
>>> logits = outputs.logits
>>> assert logits[0, 0] < logits[0, 1] # next sentence was random

Return type

NextSentencePredictorOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

BertForSequenceClassification

class transformers.BertForSequenceClassification(config)

Bert Model transformer with a sequence classification/regression head on top (a linear layer on top of the pooled output) e.g. for GLUE tasks.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, labels=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, adapter_names=None, return_dict=None)

The BertForSequenceClassification forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using BertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) – Labels for computing the sequence classification/regression loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.num_labels - 1]. If config.num_labels == 1 a regression loss is computed (Mean-Square loss), If config.num_labels > 1 a classification loss is computed (Cross-Entropy).

Returns

A SequenceClassifierOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (BertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, config.num_labels)) – Classification (or regression if config.num_labels==1) scores (before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

SequenceClassifierOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertTokenizer, BertForSequenceClassification
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased')
>>> model = BertForSequenceClassification.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased', return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> labels = torch.tensor([1]).unsqueeze(0)  # Batch size 1
>>> outputs = model(**inputs, labels=labels)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits

BertForMultipleChoice

class transformers.BertForMultipleChoice(config)

Bert Model with a multiple choice classification head on top (a linear layer on top of the pooled output and a softmax) e.g. for RocStories/SWAG tasks.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, labels=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, adapter_names=None, return_dict=None)

The BertForMultipleChoice forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using BertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) – Labels for computing the multiple choice classification loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., num_choices-1] where num_choices is the size of the second dimension of the input tensors. (See input_ids above)

Returns

A MultipleChoiceModelOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (BertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Classification loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, num_choices)) – num_choices is the second dimension of the input tensors. (see input_ids above).

    Classification scores (before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

MultipleChoiceModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertTokenizer, BertForMultipleChoice
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased')
>>> model = BertForMultipleChoice.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased', return_dict=True)

>>> prompt = "In Italy, pizza served in formal settings, such as at a restaurant, is presented unsliced."
>>> choice0 = "It is eaten with a fork and a knife."
>>> choice1 = "It is eaten while held in the hand."
>>> labels = torch.tensor(0).unsqueeze(0)  # choice0 is correct (according to Wikipedia ;)), batch size 1

>>> encoding = tokenizer([[prompt, prompt], [choice0, choice1]], return_tensors='pt', padding=True)
>>> outputs = model(**{k: v.unsqueeze(0) for k,v in encoding.items()}, labels=labels)  # batch size is 1

>>> # the linear classifier still needs to be trained
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits

BertForTokenClassification

class transformers.BertForTokenClassification(config)

Bert Model with a token classification head on top (a linear layer on top of the hidden-states output) e.g. for Named-Entity-Recognition (NER) tasks.

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, labels=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, adapter_names=None, return_dict=None)

The BertForTokenClassification forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using BertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • labels (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) – Labels for computing the token classification loss. Indices should be in [0, ..., config.num_labels - 1].

Returns

A TokenClassifierOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (BertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Classification loss.

  • logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, config.num_labels)) – Classification scores (before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

TokenClassifierOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertTokenizer, BertForTokenClassification
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased')
>>> model = BertForTokenClassification.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased', return_dict=True)

>>> inputs = tokenizer("Hello, my dog is cute", return_tensors="pt")
>>> labels = torch.tensor([1] * inputs["input_ids"].size(1)).unsqueeze(0)  # Batch size 1

>>> outputs = model(**inputs, labels=labels)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> logits = outputs.logits

BertForQuestionAnswering

class transformers.BertForQuestionAnswering(config)

Bert Model with a span classification head on top for extractive question-answering tasks like SQuAD (a linear layers on top of the hidden-states output to compute span start logits and span end logits).

This model inherits from PreTrainedModel. Check the superclass documentation for the generic methods the library implements for all its model (such as downloading or saving, resizing the input embeddings, pruning heads etc.)

This model is also a PyTorch torch.nn.Module subclass. Use it as a regular PyTorch Module and refer to the PyTorch documentation for all matter related to general usage and behavior.

Parameters

config (BertConfig) – Model configuration class with all the parameters of the model. Initializing with a config file does not load the weights associated with the model, only the configuration. Check out the from_pretrained() method to load the model weights.

forward(input_ids=None, attention_mask=None, token_type_ids=None, position_ids=None, head_mask=None, inputs_embeds=None, start_positions=None, end_positions=None, output_attentions=None, output_hidden_states=None, adapter_names=None, return_dict=None)

The BertForQuestionAnswering forward method, overrides the __call__() special method.

Note

Although the recipe for forward pass needs to be defined within this function, one should call the Module instance afterwards instead of this since the former takes care of running the pre and post processing steps while the latter silently ignores them.

Parameters
  • input_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) –

    Indices of input sequence tokens in the vocabulary.

    Indices can be obtained using BertTokenizer. See transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.encode() and transformers.PreTrainedTokenizer.__call__() for details.

    What are input IDs?

  • attention_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Mask to avoid performing attention on padding token indices. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 for tokens that are not masked,

    • 0 for tokens that are masked.

    What are attention masks?

  • token_type_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Segment token indices to indicate first and second portions of the inputs. Indices are selected in [0, 1]:

    • 0 corresponds to a sentence A token,

    • 1 corresponds to a sentence B token.

    What are token type IDs?

  • position_ids (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length), optional) –

    Indices of positions of each input sequence tokens in the position embeddings. Selected in the range [0, config.max_position_embeddings - 1].

    What are position IDs?

  • head_mask (torch.FloatTensor of shape (num_heads,) or (num_layers, num_heads), optional) –

    Mask to nullify selected heads of the self-attention modules. Mask values selected in [0, 1]:

    • 1 indicates the head is not masked,

    • 0 indicates the head is masked.

  • inputs_embeds (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size), optional) – Optionally, instead of passing input_ids you can choose to directly pass an embedded representation. This is useful if you want more control over how to convert input_ids indices into associated vectors than the model’s internal embedding lookup matrix.

  • output_attentions (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the attentions tensors of all attention layers. See attentions under returned tensors for more detail.

  • output_hidden_states (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return the hidden states of all layers. See hidden_states under returned tensors for more detail.

  • return_dict (bool, optional) – Whether or not to return a ModelOutput instead of a plain tuple.

  • start_positions (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) – Labels for position (index) of the start of the labelled span for computing the token classification loss. Positions are clamped to the length of the sequence (sequence_length). Position outside of the sequence are not taken into account for computing the loss.

  • end_positions (torch.LongTensor of shape (batch_size,), optional) – Labels for position (index) of the end of the labelled span for computing the token classification loss. Positions are clamped to the length of the sequence (sequence_length). Position outside of the sequence are not taken into account for computing the loss.

Returns

A QuestionAnsweringModelOutput (if return_dict=True is passed or when config.return_dict=True) or a tuple of torch.FloatTensor comprising various elements depending on the configuration (BertConfig) and inputs.

  • loss (torch.FloatTensor of shape (1,), optional, returned when labels is provided) – Total span extraction loss is the sum of a Cross-Entropy for the start and end positions.

  • start_logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) – Span-start scores (before SoftMax).

  • end_logits (torch.FloatTensor of shape (batch_size, sequence_length)) – Span-end scores (before SoftMax).

  • hidden_states (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_hidden_states=True is passed or when config.output_hidden_states=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for the output of the embeddings + one for the output of each layer) of shape (batch_size, sequence_length, hidden_size).

    Hidden-states of the model at the output of each layer plus the initial embedding outputs.

  • attentions (tuple(torch.FloatTensor), optional, returned when output_attentions=True is passed or when config.output_attentions=True) – Tuple of torch.FloatTensor (one for each layer) of shape (batch_size, num_heads, sequence_length, sequence_length).

    Attentions weights after the attention softmax, used to compute the weighted average in the self-attention heads.

Return type

QuestionAnsweringModelOutput or tuple(torch.FloatTensor)

Example:

>>> from transformers import BertTokenizer, BertForQuestionAnswering
>>> import torch

>>> tokenizer = BertTokenizer.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased')
>>> model = BertForQuestionAnswering.from_pretrained('bert-base-uncased', return_dict=True)

>>> question, text = "Who was Jim Henson?", "Jim Henson was a nice puppet"
>>> inputs = tokenizer(question, text, return_tensors='pt')
>>> start_positions = torch.tensor([1])
>>> end_positions = torch.tensor([3])

>>> outputs = model(**inputs, start_positions=start_positions, end_positions=end_positions)
>>> loss = outputs.loss
>>> start_scores = outputs.start_logits
>>> end_scores = outputs.end_logits